南魚沼市に自然学校

栃窪は標高500メートル前後の斜面に棚田が連続しています
栃窪は標高500メートル前後の斜面に棚田が連続しています

環境教育で地域社会を活性化—エコプラスは新潟県南魚沼市の山村を拠点にあらたな自然学校を始めることになりました。
とびっきりの自然体験活動や、世界各地をインターネットでつないだ地球規模の環境教育プログラムを展開する特定非営利活動法人ECOPLUS(高野孝子代表理事)は、2007年度、新潟県南魚沼市栃窪地区を拠点とする「南魚沼やまの自然学校」(仮称)を開設します。

村人が丹精をこめて稲の苗を育てています。
村人が丹精をこめて稲の苗を育てています。

「やまの自然学校」は、長年にわたって地域社会が自然環境と調和して存続してきた知恵と技を、持続可能な社会づくりという現代社会の課題解決に活かすことを目指します。特定の施設だけで実施するのではなく、地域全体が「学びの場」となるのが大きな特徴です。地元のお年寄りや子供たちも指導者となり、外部の人々とともに学び合う「地域まるごと自然学校」になる全国でもまれな形の運営となります。

舞台となる栃窪(とちくぼ)集落は、標高500メートル前後の山あいに、60戸弱200人ほどが暮らしています。過疎高齢化が進み、栃窪小学校は全校児童9人にまでなっています。自然学校は栃窪集落が取り組み始めた活性化プログラムにも全面的に協力します。ギフチョウが舞い、サンショウウオが流れのあちこちに卵を産むという恵まれた自然環境と、村人がなお身に付けている暮らしの知恵と技を、最高の財産として、南魚沼地域や首都圏からのみなさんを対象に、多彩な学びのプログラムを展開していきます。

この自然学校の運営に当たっては、セブン-イレブンみどりの基金(本部・東京)の「自立事業助成」として今年度唯一の案件として採択を受け、今後3年間に渡って運営支援を受けます。

具体的なプログラムとしては、5月中旬から年間5回の予定で始める「田んぼのイロハ」や、夏・秋・冬に行う連続キャンプなどを予定しています。また地域のみなさんや周辺からの参加者で地域の生態系を継続的に調査する活動も毎月展開していく予定です。

(南魚沼やまの自然学校の報道発表資料)
http://www.ecoplus.jp/files/news070511s.pdf

デンマークのエコ自転車

町の中に、丸に十の字の表示がある自転車スタンドがありました。これがレンタル自転車です。
町の中に、丸に十の字の表示がある自転車スタンドがありました。これがレンタル自転車です。

仕事ででかけたデンマークの町で、エコ自転車を見つけました。みんなで共有するレンタル自転車です。

仕事で訪れたデンマークの町に、レンタル自転車がいっぱい置かれていました。
最初は、ちょっとおしゃれな自転車だなあと思っていたのですが、どうやらみんなで共用しているのだと分かったので、よく見てみました。

レンタル自転車は、20クローネ(約400円)の硬貨を入れると鍵が外れて利用可能になります。返却すると鍵が加えている硬貨が戻る仕組みです。
レンタル自転車は、20クローネ(約400円)の硬貨を入れると鍵が外れて利用可能になります。返却すると鍵が加えている硬貨が戻る仕組みです。

自転車がチェーンでつながれているスタンドに、硬貨を差し込む場所があって、そこに20クローネの硬貨を押し込むと鍵が外れる仕組みです。欧州の飛行場やスーパーマーケットで、手押しカートを借りる時に硬貨を入れるのと同じような仕組みでした。

市内にはあちこちにスタンドがあるので、借りるのも返すのも気楽にできそうです。

コペンハーゲンには2,000台のレンタルバイクがあるそうです。私が滞在したオーフスという学生の町では、2006年に250台で始まり、2007年は400台に拡大。夜が長い冬を除いて、いつでも利用できるのが人気の理由のようです。自動車への依存を少しでも減らそうという努力なのでしょう。

もちろん、ほとんどの道路には自転車用の車線が確保されているので、自動車のよこをどんどんを自転車が走って行きます。交差点では手信号で右折左折を知らせ、停止の時にも左手のひじから先を上に上げる決まりがあり、違反すると罰金もあるとのこと。しっかりルールを作って、安全に自転車を広げているようです。

(オーフスの町のレンタル自転車ガイド=英語)
http://www.aarhusbycykel.dk/html/citybike_welcome.html

\”Place-based Education\” Lecture – Cecilia Martz (Tacuk) 2

Ilakullutat at the first paragraph. That word has a lot of parts to it, but one small part of it is respect for Elders. We show our respect to Elders by giving them already prepared or already cooked food, cleaning their house, do chores for them, because in our culture we believe that real Elders\’ minds are very strong. So if you help many Elders their strong minds will help you live a successful life.

Also in the word is that we respect Nature. We are supposed to know our environment, we are supposed to know all the animals in our area. One way of learning about the birds, we have a story that we learn when we are little, and it takes about five days to tell. It\’s about a small bird losing its mate, and the bird is trying to find another mate. And all the birds come to her one by one, from the biggest to the smallest, and the hero bird is the smallest. And we learn all the birds, their sounds, their colors, their names. The reason why it\’s so long is because we have lots of birds in our area.

So those are just a few little examples of what\’s in there, what\’s involved in there. Ray was showing the iceberg. That\’s just the bottom, just a part of it. When we are using this in our Yaaveskaniryaraq Program, when we read, the Elders that are involved in our program, when they hear it, they have tears in their eyes.

The School Districts also use this as the foundation when they are developing their curriculum. And they also have it posted everywhere, and in the classrooms. You can hear little first graders, kindergarteners, reciting this every morning.

The people who go through this program are community people. They are not being taught by outsiders but by our own Elders in the communities. And those who are taking this program, start teaching their children, start talking to their children, start taking their children to do subsistence activities. They become very proud of who they are. And the Elders that are involved in this program are very very happy, they are very willing to share their knowledge with younger, with young married people, very happy that they have been asked to share, and to teach what they know. Also, when they are teaching, they use very high language that people have forgotten, or don\’t know.

Just in the last few years the Elders that have been involved in the Yaaveskaniryaraq Program, half of them have already died. So it\’s very very important. When they die they take away with them a vast amount of knowledge that people should know, or have to know, or should learn. Here in Japan, we were in the Tochikubo Community, and we had older people sharing their knowledge with us, and we also had school children with us. And one of the comments by the school children is, \”I have a lot to learn.\”

And there\’s more that I could add but since we\’re short of time I\’ll stop here. Treasure your Elders, treasure your environment, so that you can treasure yourselves.

“Place-based Education\” Lecture Cecilia Martz (Tacuk)1

Cecilia Martz (Tacuk)
Cup’ik Educator
Yaaveskaniryaraq Project, l999-Present

Educational View Point of Cu\’pik

Before I start my presentation I\’d like to show what I\’m wearing. This is a traditional upper outer wear that we use in Alaska. You\’ll see this being worn by women in the different villages in the rural areas. It\’s called a qaspeq. And we also wear other clothing which are specific to Alaska Natives. And my husband is also wearing a qasupeq.

My name is Cecilia. That was a name given to me by an outside person. My real name is Tacuk, from my own people. And I didn\’t know that I was Cecilia until I went to school. Like you, the indigenous peoples of Alaska, we\’re losing our culture, we are losing our language. Young adults and their children who are moving away from the villages, they are adopting Western culture, and even people in our villages, they are all adopting Western culture.

Elders that you saw in Ray\’s presentation with the vast knowledge, with the deep culture, with their deep cultural knowledge, are dying, and the ones that are alive, are being used as part of everyday educational processes in the community as we as the school, as much as they should be.

They are getting more involved in the educational process. In my home village of Chevak, in the Cup\’ik area, the State of Alaska School District hires two Elders to be in the school every single day. So some of the schools are using the Elders in their schools.

The other thing that\’s happening to us in Alaska is that many of us are loosing our sense of community. A group of us realized and became alarmed at what was happening to our people, losing our culture and language. So we had many meetings with Elders for about 2 or 3 years. And we started the Yaaveskaniryaraq Program. The word Yaaveskaniryaraq has many meanings but I\’ll give you two of them. It\’s a very very deep Yup\’ik/Cu\’pik word. One meaning is moving from one level to a higher level. Another meaning is relearning and living your culture because that\’s who you are. The posters you picked up when you came in say the same thing. We use this as the foundation for our curriculum in the Yaaveskaniryaraq Program. This was developed by those who have teaching degrees already, and were working toward their Master\’s Degrees. They developed this with the help of Elders. We tried to translate it into English but the English language wasn\’t adequate enough to really bring out what we meant.

It usually takes about 3 hours to explain the whole thing, but it takes a whole lifetime to live it. Just that word qanruyutet, if we wrote it down into books, it would fill a whole library. It covers emotional, spiritual, physical, mental, all those things, and it covers all of the intangible as well as the tangible. As an example, that paragraph includes respect for nature. We feel that everything in this world has an awareness, a spirit. A rock, a baby, a seal, a plant, sky, water, wind, everything has an awareness and spirit.

Just a very specific example: when we are walking out on the tundra, when we\’re walking on the beach, when we are walking anywhere in the wilderness, if we come across a log that is imbedded into the ground, and since we view it as having an awareness, we know that that log is tired, wet and uncomfortable. We pick it up and turn it over. And while we are turning it over, we think about something positive, for instance, for another person, something positive to happen to that person, or if we have sicknesses we think about the sicknesses while we are turning the log over. And also that log when it gets turned over will get dry and might help somebody for survival.

Another example is a seal. When we catch a seal, we don\’t waste any part of it. We use everything of the seal. We use the skin for things like clothing, for bags, for storage. And the meat, we use for our sustenance, for our food. And the bones, we never throw them in the trash. We\’re supposed to bring that to a small lake or a pond and put the bones back into nature.

“Place-based Education\” Lecture – Ray Barnhadt 3

Cultural Standards for Students:

Culturally knowledgeable students are well grounded in the cultural heritage and traditions of their community. This is one of the 27 Cultural Standards that are now a required component of all educational programs in Alaska:

Culturally knowledgeable students are well grounded in the cultural heritage and traditions of their community.

For each Cultural Standard, there are a half-dozen examples of what that standard looks like in practice. Copies of these documents are available at the web site address that I will give you at the end of the presentation.

In addition to the Cultural Standards themselves, Native people have also developed a series of guidelines to help implement the standards in various elements of the educational system, including outlining what teachers need to know and be able to do to successfully implement the standards in their schools. If anyone is interested in more information on how these ideas impact teacher preparation, you can speak with my wife, Carol, who is the head of the Elementary Teacher Education Program in Fairbanks and is here with us this evening.

Another area of consideration was a set of guidelines on the role of traditional parenting and child-rearing practices as they might be incorporated in school and community practices.

Of particular concern was the need to acquaint teachers, most of whom come from outside the communities in which they teach, with local practices regarding the role of Elders and the protocols associated with the knowledge they contribute to the educational process. This is one of the Elders who shared much about her own up-bringing and helped find ways to bring that local knowledge into the schools in culturally appropriate ways. You will be hearing more about Louise when Cecilia describes the educational philosophy that is embedded in the next slide.

As you will see when you hear from Cecilia, the Yup\’ik and Cup\’ik people of Southwest Alaska are quite capable of defining their own deeply rooted expectations when it comes to the education of their children.

As I indicated earlier, there are many areas in which there is local knowledge in every community that can serve as a starting point for teaching the subject matter that we draw upon for the school curriculum. Left are just a few examples of the place- and culture-based educational resources we have developed to illustrate how what students experience in school can be built upon the life they lead out of school.

For example, there is very little that we teach in the science curriculum that can\’t be demonstrated through examples drawn from the local community, including remote villages in rural Alaska.

Sled runners can be used to illustrate friction. Local weather observations can be compared with satellite images to study meteorology. The local language can be used to identify the many variations of snow and ice conditions to illustrate states of matter, sublimation, energy transfer, thermodynamics, etc.

Math problems can be constructed around local themes.

Local knowledge about constellations, celestial navigation, tidal patterns, seasonal change indicators, etc. are abundant in every community and can bring learning alive in ways that are seldom achieved in the classroom setting alone.

Knowledge about local edible and medicinal plants and traditional healing practices continue to be a matter of survival in many Native communities, to the point where ethno-botany has become a field of study in its own right.

To help teachers see the possibilities and benefits of tapping into the knowledge base in the surrounding community and environment, we have developed a \”Handbook for Culturally Responsive Science Curriculum\”.
The curriculum materials and cultural resources that are developed by teachers have been assembled in a web-based curriculum clearinghouse to make them available to teachers anywhere in Alaska and beyond.

As these curriculum resources have accumulated over the past ten years, we have been able to organize them around a series of themes that provide a culturally-based framework that is now being put to use to serve as a full grade 7-12 curriculum in a demonstration school in Fairbanks.

The Effie Kokrine Charter School is organized on a year-round seasonal calendar and all courses are offered on an intensive three-week block schedule, to allow time for students to spend extended periods of time out in the community and surrounding environment.

In summary, the river banks and ocean shores of Alaska are increasingly providing the most promising learning environment for achieving the goals of both academic and cultural education.

Through a place- and culturally-based pedagogy, students are being prepared to make a life for themselves in a global world while at the same time learning the skills to serve as knowledgeable stewards of their own communities and the environment on which their livelihood depends.

And teachers are learning to not just teach about culture as another subject in the school curriculum, but to teach through the local culture as a doorway unto the world.

You can find much more information about the issues I\’ve discussed here today on the Alaska Native Knowledge Network web site at www.ankn.uaf.edu.

“Place-based Education\” Lecture – Ray Barnhadt 2

Alaska Native Education:Steps Toward Reciprocity

Historically, schools in rural Alaska have been largely alien institutions with an imported curriculum that gave little consideration to the unique knowledge and skills that already existed in the communities they served.
It wasn\’t until the middle of the last century that elementary schools were established in Native communities, and only 30 years ago that secondary schools became available in rural communities.
Before 1975, most village students had to leave their home community and attend a boarding school to obtain a high school education. So our task has been to open up a dialogue to foster a two-way exchange of ideas, knowledge and skills between the schools and the communities they serve, recognizing that each contains knowledge of value to the students.

A major contribution toward opening this dialogue was the work of Angayuqaq Oscar Kawagley, whose doctoral dissertation provided critical insights into the world view, ways of knowing and educational practices of his people, the Yupiaq of Southwest Alaska.

Central to Dr. Kawagley\’s thesis was the representation of a Yupiaq world view as made up of a dynamic relationship between the human, natural and spiritual realms that constitute the whole of Yupiaq existence. He argued that one cannot address the role of the human realm without taking into consideration our interdependency with the natural and spiritual worlds. In other words, we can\’t teach science or history apart from understanding how we as humans interact with the world around us.

This chart illustrates how we went about introducing changes into the educational systems at two levels.

First, we had to engage Native elders to better understand how the local knowledge systems functioned in ways that could be drawn upon to enhance the school curriculum (the initiatives along the upper stream).
Then we had to find ways to make room in the established state curriculum to incorporate the world view, knowledge and ways of knowing present in the communities.

The goal was to bring the two streams of knowledge together in a way that they could complement one another to broaden and deepen the educational experiences of the students.

As we worked with the elders, it soon became apparent that we had to go beyond the visible aspects of the local cultures that schools typically had been limited to, such as dancing, foods, story-telling or subsistence practices (the tip of the iceberg), and take into consideration the deeper, less visible knowledge that continues to be an important part of life in Native communities.

Some of these less tangible elements of local knowledge that offer a rich opportunity for students to engage in comparative study include weather forecasting, navigation skills, traditional medicines, measurement systems, language patterns, local technologies and survival skills.

Elders themselves have become important contributors to the process of documenting local knowledge, such as this book by Athabascan Elder, Howard Luke. Howard\’s book includes a detailed map of the traditional places of importance to the people who inhabited Interior Alaska long before the gold rush brought a new form of livelihood to the Tanana Valley.

Elders in each cultural region of Alaska have also contributed to the educational process in their communities by putting together a list of values that they consider as representative of who they are and how they interact with the world around them.

These values serve as an important guide for teachers and community members to socialize young people into their roles as future leaders and culture bearers in their communities.

This is another example of local values from the Yupik people in Southwest Alaska, with both a Yupik and English translation.

As Native people in Alaska began to put forward their own ideas of how schools might best contribute to the educational and cultural well-being of their children, it became apparent that the school curriculum that was outlined in the academic content standards prepared by the Alaska Department of Education did not provide sufficient guidance to produce a well-rounded education, particularly for Native students.To address this deficiency in the State system, Native people engaged in a two-year process to prepare their own version of a comprehensive outline of what students needed to learn to be full contributors to their families and communities. In 1998, the Alaska Department of Education adopted these \”Alaska Standards for Culturally Responsive Schools\” as an additional component of the State standards for schools.

環境学習会で活発な意見

気温上昇に伴う影響について解説する大前エコプラス事務局長
気温上昇に伴う影響について解説する大前エコプラス事務局長

3月20日、エコプラザにてスターンレビューの骨子を理解し、温暖化対策など広く意見交換する学習会が開かれた。

学習会には、3Rを推進する団体や電力会社、広告代理店勤務の人や、環境教育に携わる人、みなと環境リーダー1期生や大学生など、港区環境課の今福課長を含め、多様なステークホルダー(関係者)21名が集まった。

 最新の取材を元に情報提供する朝日新聞の石井記者
最新の取材を元に情報提供する朝日新聞の石井記者

展示されているパネルなども利用しながらのスターンレビュー概略説明の後、レビューが出される背景としての英国の環境政策事情が解説された。
英国では3月13日に気候変動法案が議会に提出されるなど、政治的に大胆な方針が次々と打ち出されている。2050年までに二酸化炭素を1990年レベルから60%削減することを掲げているが、英国内ではそれでも生ぬるいという批判が強い。一方、日本は、2013年までに6%を削減する目標の達成すら危うい状態だ。
続いて、朝日新聞で温暖化特集を担当する石井記者は、気候変動など環境諸問題に対するアメリカ政府の姿勢が大きく変わりつつある最新情報を披露しながら、日本だけが世界で大きく取り残されることになるのでは、と報告。

電力会社勤務の参加者から、社としての取り組みの説明と共に、「どんなに二酸化炭素を出さないように電気を作ることができても、消費者がどんどん使い続けては効果がない」という説得力ある発言があった。

土や緑を増やすことの意義や、個々人ができることを考えることなどの意見が活発に出され、たくさんの質問と意見交換で、時間をオーバーしてのにぎやかな時間となった。

こうした学習会を繰り返していくことの意義を確認して解散。有志たち15名で懇親会へと移動し、温暖化議論はさらに白熱した。

アラスカ少数民族の「根っこ教育」報告書出来ました

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAエコプラスが、国際交流基金日米センターの助成を受け、アラスカの少数民族の教育者らを招いて行った連続講演会の報告書が出来ました。
エコプラスが、国際交流基金日米センターの助成を受け、アラスカの少数民族の教育者らを招いて行った「地域に根ざした教育を考える・・・アラスカ先住民族の自然観を元に」の報告書が出来ました。

458-l 2006年11月から12月にかけて、アラスカ大学教授のレイ・バーンハート氏や、チュピック民族教育家のダチュック(シシリア・マーツ)さんらを招いて、東京での講演会のほかに、静岡、新潟、北海道で行ったワークショップの内容を日英2カ国語でまとめました。

アラスカ州で、少数民族の文化と伝統を取り入れた教育システムが動き始めているのは日本ではあまり知られていません。全国統一の画一的なカリキュラムを、それぞれの民族独自の価値観の中で再構成した事例は、地域に根付いた教育のあり方として大きく注目されています。その流れを初めて日本で総合的に紹介した講演やワークショップの記録です。

A4版、44ページ。希望の方はエコプラス(info@ecoplus.jp)へ、手数料(送料込み)1部500円でお分けします。

ore than 1,000 joined meetings with international guests from Kenya, Middle East and Korea on World School Network\’s events.

A presentation session at the auditorium of International Plaza of JICA, Japan International Cooperation Agency.
A presentation session at the auditorium of International Plaza of JICA, Japan International Cooperation Agency.

A series of international events of World School Network, a project of Non Profit Organization ECOPLUS, was held in Tokyo and Niigata, Japan from 10th to 14th February 2007.

A series of international events of World School Network, a project of Non Profit Organization ECOPLUS, was held in Tokyo and Niigata, Japan from 10th to 14th February 2007 inviting 23 international guests from 4 countries.

In Tochikubo village in Niigata, international participants experienced Japanese traditional ways of life in deep snow.
In Tochikubo village in Niigata, international participants experienced Japanese traditional ways of life in deep snow.

In addition to presentation sessions and workshops, international guests visited schools and other places in Tokyo metropolitan area and shared their experiences with more than 1,000 students, educators and citizens.

Students and educators from Kenya, Palestine, Israel and Korea joined the presentation session and workshop held in Tokyo with Japanese participants. International guests moved to a mountainous village called Tochikubo in Minamiuonuma city, Niigata and learned Japanese traditional life which has been keeping harmonious relation with their environment for hundreds years.
At World School Network, several joint projects related on environment are going on, connecting students in the world from more than 10 countries and encouraging students to re-focus on their own area. This series were supported by Japan foundation and Nippon Koa Insurance company.

For these events, a lot of paper works, coordinations, telephone calls, fax exchanges and others were needed for acceptance of international guests because of financial and political situations specially in Kenya and Middle East. One of two students invited from Palestine were not able to pass the border to Jordan by very bureaucratic reasons and a mother of only one student who successfully visited Japan needed to stay in Jordan until her son came back from Japan for ten days by strange regulations.

Various activities at the events are available at following URL.
http://www.wschool.net/showart.php?lang=en&genre=9&aid=178

世界の子どもらと1000人以上が環境交流、ワールドスクールネットワークの国際イベント

発表会の会場となったJICA地球ひろばの講堂で、各国の発表を聞く参加者たち
発表会の会場となったJICA地球ひろばの講堂で、各国の発表を聞く参加者たち

エコプラスのワールドスクールネットワーク部門が主催する国際イベントが2月10日から14日まで、海外4カ国23人のゲストを招いて、東京と新潟で行われました。

発表会の会場となったJICA地球ひろばの講堂で、各国のエコプラスのワールドスクールネットワーク部門が主催する2006年度の国際イベントが2007年2月10日から14日まで、海外4カ国23人のゲストを招いて、東京と新潟で行われました。

日本の伝統的な暮らしを体験した新潟県南魚沼しの栃窪集落
日本の伝統的な暮らしを体験した新潟県南魚沼しの栃窪集落

発表会やワークショップのほかに、首都圏の高校や小学校などを訪問させていただき、のべ1,000人以上のみなさんと交流することができました。

海外から参加したケニア、パレスチナ、イスラエル、韓国の小中学生と指導者らは、東京で2日間にわたって行われた発表会とワークショップに日本の子どもらと参加。後半の3日間は新潟県南魚沼市の山里である栃窪集落にお邪魔して、日本の自然と調和した暮らしの中での伝統を学びました。

ワールドスクールネットワークでは、海外10カ国前後の子どもらと日本の子どもらをつないで、それぞれの地元の環境を見直す共同プロジェクトを継続しています。今回の国際イベントは、国際交流基金と日本興亜おもいやり助成を受けて実現しました。

海外勢の中でも、ケニアとパレスチナは財政的な理由から、また政治的な理由から子どもが海外での国際イベントに参加するのは容易ではなく、準備には多くの事務作業と各国大使館などとの調整が必要でした。パレスチナからは当初中学生2人が参加予定でしたが、イスラエルが管理するヨルダンへの国境を渡る際に、親も一緒に出国し、親は子どもが日本から戻るまでヨルダンで待機することを命じられ、対応出来なかった1人の子どもは出国が禁止され参加されないという、厳しい現実にも直面しました。

詳細は、ワールドスクールネットワークのサイトと、子どもらの意見交換の場である知恵図鑑をご覧下さい。
http://www.wschool.net/showart.php?lang=ja&genre=9&aid=178

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